Teaching the Holocaust in the English Classroom: Connecting Students to Develop Their Empathy

Amber Tilley, Northland Pines High School, Eagle River, WI,
atilley @ npsd.k12.wi.us

The inscription on the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum wall read, “For the dead and the living, we must bear witness–Elie Wiesel.” That quote stuck with me all the way back to Wisconsin. What did it mean to “bear witness”? Who was I to carry out this sort of work in my rural Wisconsin high school? I understood its importance, having taught Night for several years. But I had no direct understanding of the Holocaust, no true training in Jewish studies, and no firsthand contact with anyone who did. Yet, Wiesel’s task stayed in the forefront of my teaching…to bear witness.

Getting to Know the Holocaust: My Journey
When I started teaching in rural northern Wisconsin, I found a stack of copies of Night, read the book, and had decided right away that it merited teaching to the sophomore class. I did not know much about the Holocaust except for what I researched. No other English teacher in my school taught Holocaust literature, and, at the time, it was touched on only briefly in history classes. At first, teaching Night was not a matter of my students lacking empathy or experience, it was a matter of student interest level, convenience, and resources. They were very interested, and I had the books right there before me. That first year, they had questions–I also had questions–and we did our best to find answers. In my second year of teaching Night, I vividly remember a student sitting in the front row. He fired off question after question about the “why” of the Holocaust. Our attempts to find information online were only somewhat successful. I had some detail and databases of first-hand accounts, but there was no one I could talk to.

This sparked my journey of trying to find answers and ultimately set me on my way of seeking a truer educational experience in order to provide students with a deeper understanding. The Holocaust Education Resource Center (HERC) in Milwaukee was one of the first organizations from which I sought knowledge. It has a vast Holocaust survivors speakers bureau and connects teachers and their students with those who have first-hand or educational experience in Holocaust education. Through its programs, I traveled first to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, DC, and connected with other teachers who had interest and desire to be Holocaust educators. HERC then provided the opportunity to travel to Poland, Lithuania, and the Czech Republic and to visit Auschwitz, Birkenau, Treblinka, and Majdanek. I toured the ghettos in Warsaw and Lublin. I looked at the pits at Ponar. Reflection in this process is key, and to be there where they–the victims of the Holocaust–walked, died or survived…what an experience to be able to relate back to my students! A couple years later, HERC offered another trip, and this time I traveled to Israel to study with scholars at Yad Vashem. HERC has proven an invaluable resource to my Holocaust studies.

Two years later, I studied with Holocaust scholars in New York City at a summer institute sponsored by The Olga Lengyel Institute (TOLI), named for the author of Five Chimneys, the first Holocaust memoir published after the Holocaust in 1946. Every summer, TOLI offers 12-day seminars including discussions with Holocaust survivors and Holocaust rescuers, scholars, several authors; collaborations with fellow Holocaust educators; research into Jewish history and life today; and so much more. This experience added more depth to my knowledge and connected me with amazing peers in the field.

TOLI also offers a one-week Satellite Seminar Program across the country, FREE to educators at all grade levels, and we have one right here in Wisconsin. I attended the seminar in Fox Point, which included discussions with Holocaust survivors and a local rabbi, information about the history of Anti-Judaism, and a visit to the Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center. I received books and materials to take back to the classroom as well. During the summer of 2017, I co-facilitated this seminar. Again, the connections to people and experiences was invaluable.

Learning from HERC, TOLI, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, and Yad Vashem helps create a new, deeper understanding for educators and networks of colleagues. Taking the travel experience into the classroom, students can now hear what it is like to step foot in a cattle car, to walk the grounds of Auschwitz, and to hear more about survivors. My educational experiences have also had a ripple effect: not only do my students learn what I have learned, but so do my colleagues and educators state-wide at conferences and the TOLI Summer Seminar-Wisconsin.

All of the instruction, experience, travel, and tools have shaped our curriculum. My colleagues and I now have the tools to teach the Holocaust and, through that, empathy.

Holocaust Education in My School Today: Connecting Students
At Northland Pines High School, students get their first understanding of the Holocaust in US History classes. However, the English classroom is where they get the most instruction–and experience–in understanding and connecting to the Holocaust. Today, our English curriculum dedicates a quarter of the sophomore year to Holocaust and genocide studies. As my department and I continued teaching Night, we came to understand how much students really connect to the Holocaust and Elie Wiesel’s account. We discovered that we not only were able to cover the mandatory curriculum requirements of the classroom, but we could also teach empathy.

Gradually, we expanded the Holocaust unit from just Night and related readings and videos to the full nine weeks. During the unit, students choose one novel from this list:

  • Wiesel, Night
  • Opdyke, In My Hands: Memories of a Holocaust Rescuer
  • Spiegelman, Maus
  • Sharenow, Berlin Boxing Club
  • Gourevitch: We Wish to Inform You that Tomorrow We Will be Killed with Our Families: Stories from Rwanda

Once they have chosen their book, we group them accordingly. They create their own reading calendars and come to class having annotated their books (usually with sticky notes) ready for Socratic seminars, largely organized by students with one as a note-taker and all others participating in a roundtable discussion. As they discuss their books, they ask meaningful questions, share reactions, and read whatever passages they found to be important or significant. Afterwards, they complete a summative assessment group presentation when they share out main plot points and themes.

Besides reading nonfiction and historical fiction, they also watch a variety of short testimonials and read poems and stories. Many of these are discussed in small and large groups, often through writing assignments. They watch the documentaries I’m Still Here: Real Diaries of Young People Who Lived during the Holocaust (MTV) and One Day in Auschwitz (USC Shoah Foundation). The culminating assessment comes in the form of a research project: students investigate both the life of a Holocaust victim and a victim of a different genocide, and they cite sources and present their findings on a poster shared with a small group of peers. This is rolled out in a research phase when students investigate survivor testimonials on the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, USC Shoah Foundation, Echoes and Reflections, and Yad Vashem websites, which have excellent testimonial archives. They then create a timeline of the victims on large posters, citing information, and deliver presentations in small groups. Through this project, they get to know their victims well and also get to hear about other testimonials as well.

Towards the end of the unit, my students visit Wiesel’s quote, “For the dead and the living, we must bear witness.” We discuss the meaning of this quote and what it means to bear witness. How can students bear witness in their own lives? By being an upstander for what is right and good? By being empathetic to others in a tough situation? By keeping in mind the lessons of the Holocaust? Students reflect on these questions in writing.

Finally, keeping in mind the teachings of the Jewish tradition, they learn about the Jewish concept of Tikkun Olam, which means to repair the world. They reflect on what they have learned in the Holocaust unit and think of a way they can “repair the world.” They pledge to make a change for the better, such as socially, environmentally, or spiritually. This dedication to making the world a better place ends the Holocaust and genocide unit. In all, students learn about the Holocaust in depth in English classes. They acquire an understanding of the depth of the atrocity, and they learn the difference between bystanders and upstanders, that is, what to do if they see wrong on any level. They read about people much like themselves who find themselves in impossible situations. They make connections, which builds the empathy. They also understand the depth of the atrocity, which helps their understanding of humanity.

Measuring Achievement: Do Students Understand the Holocaust Better? Do They Become More Empathetic?
Through reading and watching the texts–through research, writing, and discussions–students get to know the victims of the Holocaust personally. This connection–not only to words on a page but to the humans behind those words–makes the experiences more tangible. The lessons can be applied not only to English class, but the experience transcends into other areas of the students’ lives as well. By having traveled to the places of the Holocaust and having mindfully planned lessons, I make sure the students learn about the Holocaust more deeply than when I first taught Holocaust literature. Do students become more empathetic through learning this material, and how do I know? Besides being a part of student growth of understanding as observed in student behaviors, writing, and attitudes, I do ask them to write about what they learned. The question is, “What is the importance of learning about historical events like Holocaust and genocide in general?” Some answers from students recently:

When I was reading Night, I found it hard to keep reading it at times because of the depth, but after reading the book I realized that through the literature I got to feel what Elie was going through. It became a lot more real than just hearing what happened or learning it through some kind of lecture. This kind of learning brings a new maturity to students. We can understand what students, people from the past have gone through. It brings a sense of appreciation. And it teaches us to do something when we see people being treated unfairly.–Meaghan L.

At the beginning of the unit, I heard a student saying something under his breath about why do we have to learn about this. He was making jokes. At the end of the unit, he understood. He had a new perspective. He was over making the jokes. This type of deep learning, reading, brings people into the conversation. Now people understand the points of view of others.” –Nicole R.

Overall Impact
Wiesel’s words changed my focus in class and inspired my travels and investigation into the Holocaust and bettering my teaching practices. Inscribed at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and also on the wall of my classroom, his words, “For the dead and the living, we must bear witness,” are often at the forefront of my mind. Being charged to bear witness, I decided to focus on teaching the Holocaust more mindfully, and in addition, to teach other educators in order to make connections in Wisconsin and help them improve their curriculum as well. This educational topic has shaped my students to be globally aware of issues of social justice of the past and present, and to be aware of red flags for injustice in the future. Knowing the history and repercussions of being a bystander or perpetrator makes many students have a better understanding of themselves and others.

Incorporating Game-Based Learning with Shirley Jackson’s “The Lottery” to Maximize Students’ Achievement and Engagement

Sarah Wolf, Grand Island Central Catholic, Grand Island, NE, ms.wolfgicc @ gmail.com

Phu Vu, Associate Professor of Teacher Education, University of Nebraska at Kearney, vuph @ unk.edu

According to Anderson and Jiang of the Pew Research Center (2018), 88% of U. S. teens have access to home computers and 95% to smartphones. This ease of access to technological devices, in turn, rapidly fuels digital consumption. While 45% of teens reported being online with virtually round-the-clock regularity, Anderson and Jiang noted that “roughly nine-in-ten teens go online at least multiple times per day” (p. 8) and the same number participate in video gaming. As a matter of fact, the percentage of teens who use the Internet on a near-constant basis has nearly doubled in the span of only three years.

Teens enjoy using technology not only in their personal lives, but also in the classroom to enhance their learning. Game-based learning (GBL), a pedagogical method in which games are incorporated into the curriculum in order to accomplish specific learning objectives, enables individuals to attain content mastery through various competitive, collaborative, and goal-oriented means. By combining gaming principles with purposeful instructional design, teachers can create an active learning environment that promotes academic interest/engagement and improves knowledge retention (Pho & Dinscore, 2015; Spires, 2015).

Specific to English language learning, researchers have found that the adoption of GBL can result in promising learning gains. In their study of nonnative and native English speakers interacting in the virtual world Quest Atlantis, Zheng, Wagner, Young, and Brewer (2009) discovered that GBL created a learner-centered environment in which participants worked together to complete educational quests in an atmosphere that felt more interactive and flexible to them than did the rigidity of a traditional classroom. As a result, their linguistic abilities were furthered in the areas of pragmatics, syntax, semantics, and discourse. To further examine how GBL impacts student performance, Zheng, Bischoff, and Gilliland (2015) examined nonnative/native English speaker educational interactions in the massively multiplayer online game (MMOG) World of Warcraft. The researchers ascertained that the collaborative nature of the MMOG and the richness of the in-game linguistic resources provided multiple contexts for the acquisition of both vocabulary and multimodal literacy skills. Furthermore, they noted that GBL provided participants with lexicogrammar opportunities that went beyond the offerings of a physical classroom.

However, Zheng et al. (2015) also stressed that educators must exert agency over the lesson development process in order to avoid academic stagnation in the digital era. The traditional teacher-centered instructional model favors the reduction of language concepts into clearly delineated units taught via rote learning. Yet this singular focus on content mastery limits the motivation to engage with the curriculum and the ability to perform higher-level cognitive processes. The GBL research conducted by Wu, Chen, and Huang (2014) determined that modern students—a generation highly influenced by Web-based multimedia—require active learning experiences that mirror real-world linguistic/communicative situations outside of the school setting.

One pedagogical resource that provides such active learning experiences is Kahoot—an online application launched in 2013. With Kahoot, students use digital devices to participate in multiple-choice quizzes in which they are pitted against their peers. After the conclusion of each round/question, they receive immediate feedback and points for correct answers, with the class leaderboard subsequently updated between rounds.

Although Kahoot is a relatively new means of instruction, studies have shown that this GBL platform increases students’ test scores and levels of classroom engagement. Iwamoto, Hargis, Taitano, and Vuong (2017) conducted an experiment in which two undergraduate classes received identical instruction during a unit on general psychology. One class (the experimental group) reviewed the lesson material via non-graded Kahoot quizzes during the last 10 minutes of the period, whereas the other class (the control group) continued with the lecture-discussion format of instruction. The day before the test, the experimental group spent the entirety of the period replaying all of the Kahoot quizzes from the unit; conversely, the control group completed a study guide as a class. After both groups were administered identical multiple-choice exams on the same day, the researchers discovered that the experimental group received significantly higher scores on the exam than did the control group. Moreover, results obtained from a post-exam questionnaire indicated that 71% of the experimental group’s members found Kahoot to have aided them in preparing for the exam.

Researchers across disciplines have made similar discoveries. For example, Plump and LaRosa (2017) found that more than 85% of students enrolled across twelve university business classes stated that Kahoot aided their conceptual understanding of course content and proved to be a positive and engaging experience. Furthermore, Wang and Lieberoth (2016) found that 90% of first-year information technology students at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, with both full and partial access to Kahoot, found educational value in their game participation and became more academically motivated in the content area.

Gaming/Learning Preferences Survey
To measure how the data from the literature review is reflected in the classroom, we administered a gaming/learning preferences survey to a class of 40 sophomore English students taught by Sarah, the first author, at the private Grand Island Central Catholic High School in Nebraska. Phu, the second author, served primarily as a research mentor uninvolved in the classroom activities and without direct contact to the students.

The results of this survey informed us of the extent to which gaming is an essential part of high school sophomores’ personal lives. More than 80% of the students reported that they incorporate gaming into their weekly routine, with the majority desiring an entertaining means of interacting with their friends. Based on my hall duty and lunchroom monitor responsibilities, I am unsurprised by these findings because students are permitted to interact with their cell phones for recreational use during passing periods and in the cafeteria. I frequently observe them engrossed in gaming on their devices, sacrificing nourishment and/or an early arrival to class in order to make progress on a mobile level of their choice. When these devices run low on battery, panic-stricken students seek teachers out for permission to charge their phones in their rooms. Additionally, not a day goes by without discussions about mission quests/boss battles or competitive digital card games. Dance-offs that make use of various Fortnite choreographic sequences are regularly present at school dances, and the potential reception of video game console upgrades is a topic of fervent conversation during the holiday season.

In the survey that I administered, two-thirds of respondents also indicated partiality to demonstrating content mastery through gaming. As educators, it is imperative to acknowledge a paradigm shift in pedagogical best practices because traditional teaching methods must be amended in order to better meet the needs and interests of 21st-century learners. When the majority’s preference for learning does not align with the educator’s preference for teaching, instruction is not being designed to optimally promote academic success. Teaching the way students learn enables them to invest themselves more thoroughly in their education.

Post-Survey Reflection
Analyzing high school sophomores’ educational and technological predilections led me to reassess the manner in which I taught Shirley Jackson’s short story “The Lottery.” This unit culminated in two summative assessments: a text-to-text/text-to-world exploration project (in which students researched, analyzed, and evaluated the similarities and differences between aspects of “The Lottery” and various laws/traditions/persecutory practices) and a test over plot elements and literary structure. By preparing for the test, the class experienced factual concepts and textual interpretation in a manner providing a firm foundation for pursuing the upper-level elements of Bloom’s Taxonomy.

When previously presenting this unit, I noticed that many of the students struggled to fully engage with the content of the lessons. Whereas the exploration project of this unit has traditionally been viewed by sophomores as a highlight of the academic year, they tended to lack intrinsic motivation when reading and analyzing “The Lottery”: their involvement in lessons merely stemmed from a desire to pass the class, not from interest in the subject matter. As a result, grades on the test reflected the stagnant effort with which they approached the learning process.

Furthermore, their linguistic and literary abilities often required my attention in order to transcend from lower- to higher-order thinking skills. In fact, many students defaulted to a role of passivity when receiving information and needed prompting in order to actively engage with, examine, and communicate the deeper meanings of the text. For example, when asked to identify character names that take on additional symbolism, many ably located Graves (foreshadowing death) and Warner (portentous tragedy) but struggled to explore how said names possessed deeper levels of meaning. When asked to locate/cite/present textual information, such as providing two quotations predicting the end of the story, they required extensive scaffolding. Additionally, as they lacked confidence to share their answers, I was able only to solicit their verbal responses after providing substantial encouragement.

Objective: Implement GBL
Based on a desire to promote content engagement and the digital learning preferences of my students, I decided to implement GBL as a means of accomplishing the following objective: given a 25-question test, students will be able to recall information from the short story with 80% accuracy. The selection of 80% as the desired level of proficiency stemmed from a pedagogical guideline published by the National Council of Teachers of English asking teachers to state desired performance levels for objectives at 80% (Peterson, 1975).

To actualize these objectives, Phu and I chose Kahoot in order to explore game creation in a manner not requiring prior coding knowledge or experience. Although we appreciate the idea of open educational resources, we often find that these pre-existing activities address neither the specific subject matter nor specific instructional contexts. The composition of learners in my classroom necessitated the incorporation of tasks that provide engagement through visual, auditory, and kinesthetic modalities. Kahoot enables students to read the content with which they are engaging, to hear the teacher provide an oral rendition of the question, and to interact with their peers in a competitive player vs. player or team activity while solving said question. Furthermore, designing a Kahoot facilitates the customization of both content questions that meet the educational needs of the students and time constraints for providing answers.

Our selection of Kahoot was also influenced by the cohesive nature and scholastic habits of my students. As a whole, they are one of the closest-knit groups that I’ve taught. Not only do they favor socializing as a large group, but they also strive to encourage each other to achieve academic success. Despite this strong bond, this grade boasts sizeable numbers of both introverted and extroverted personalities, thus I introduced an entertaining, technology-based activity that would appeal to both solitary and communal learning styles.

The mechanics of Kahoot foster student excitement and engagement in a manner that can be smoothly initiated and monitored. When beginning a round, the teacher selects customization options such as question/answer randomization, answer streak bonuses, and podium recognition for the top three finishers. After the teacher clicks either “classic” (player vs. player) or “team” mode, the class is presented with a welcome screen, projected from the master computer, that provides the game PIN. Once they enter the PIN and a moniker (with the teacher having the power to eliminate inappropriate choices), the teacher clicks “start” and play commences. Kahoot displays a question on the board for five seconds, then the students answer by pressing on the corresponding shape/color on their individual devices. Once time runs out, a checkmark appears next to the correct response with a bar graph of anonymous student responses. The five highest cumulative point totals are displayed on the scoreboard at the conclusion of each question. At the end of the game, the teacher privately receives data on student performance (see Figure 1).

I began by furnishing the students with a traditional multiple-choice pretest on “The Lottery” and stressing the importance of interpreting the results as a diagnostic baseline for their current understanding of the material rather than as a measure of their intelligence. In other words, I wanted them to set personalized goals for attaining content mastery by discovering what they did not yet comprehend. Afterwards, with the aid of a randomizer, they read “The Lottery” aloud together. Since they knew neither the order in which they would be called nor the frequency with which they would be asked to participate, they paid close attention to the text as it was recited. Before the end of the period, I assigned them study guide questions to complete within three days.

During the week-long duration of GBL, the Kahoot link was available on my sophomore English online weekly planner. Students therefore interacted with this resource on an independent basis. Every other day, they competed against each other on Kahoot during the last portion of class; on alternating days, they reviewed the questions with a partner. Because they tended to select answers swiftly without reading the question or the answers themselves (in order to earn a potential maximum of 1,000 points), I activated the “Answer Streak Bonus” option to encourage them to take their time and favor accuracy over rapid clicking.

In between each Kahoot round/question, the students asked questions in order to clarify their understanding of unfamiliar content. One such occasion emerged when those who incorrectly answered the question “What is Jackson’s main theme in this short story?” (with “the foolishness of blindly following tradition” being the correct answer) proactively queried their peers regarding the definition of the word “theme” and why the correct answer was the best selection out of the four possible options (with the other options “the value of human life,” “the need for change in a community,” and “the need for tradition in small towns”).

On the day of the posttest, they competed in a round of Kahoot as a means of studying for their assessment over “The Lottery.” Afterwards, I distributed the 25-question, multiple-choice exam. All of the students completed the task in under fifteen minutes and substantially improved their scores:

Discussion
Using Kahoot brought about constructive results from both student and educator perspectives. As I currently teach at a 1:1 school, all of the sophomores possess a Chromebook. Since two-thirds of the class members are partial to demonstrating content mastery through gaming, they relished the chance to participate in Kahoot. Consequently, student interest and motivation/desire to succeed resulted in the pretest-to-posttest scores improving by 244.37%. Their avid engagement emboldened them to become active agents (as opposed to complacent bystanders) in the learning process. In other words, they became more confident in interacting with others, verbalizing their opinions, and asking for help.

Interacting with the Kahoot appealed to visual/auditory/kinesthetic modalities and thus aided students with diverse learning styles. Furthermore, presenting various setting and grouping options for the Kahoot (e.g., independently outside of class, with a partner during review time, and with the entire class at the end of the period) enabled both introverts and extroverts to experience the online platform comfortably. Removing barriers to learning by providing options for access and perception helped them grow in their ability to critically analyze literature: when I presented the information in a manner that the students could more readily comprehend, they mastered the information more expeditiously and possessed a stronger knowledge base from which to execute higher-order thinking skills. For instance, those with a confident grasp on the plot initiated class discussions on topics such as how “The Lottery” exemplifies satire, how the story’s theme of “the foolishness of blindly following tradition” is echoed in the real world, and why Jackson would use a cheerful/objective tone to narrate a story that ends with an execution.

From a teaching standpoint, being able to monitor participant behavior permitted me to discern between the mastered material and that requiring additional reinforcement. By walking around the classroom throughout the duration of the Kahoot, I could provide assistance and instruction and to redirect off-task behavior as needed.

Notwithstanding the success, an area of rectification lies in the domain of product testing. Although I spent hours generating and customizing the content, I could not preview the game from a student’s perspective. As a result, it was not until the students began inputting their usernames that I realized an error had been made: the background color of the video summary of “The Lottery” embedded on the welcome screen was almost identical to the color of the Kahoot font. Only by tilting the laptop could I view the usernames. In the future, integrating Kahoots into the development process should lessen the presence of such software bugs.

For teachers seeking to replicate this process, I would strongly urge them to provide access to the Kahoot outside of teacher instruction. When individuals are able to experience content at home and receive instantaneous feedback, knowledge retention and lesson engagement are greatly enhanced. Because the Kahoot link was posted on the English online weekly planner, the absent students could still interact with the material and keep up with their studies. Moreover, those who experience anxiety when interacting with new material in front of their peers have opportunity to grow in self-confidence and mastery on a timeline that best fits their educational needs.

Something as simple as copying/pasting a Kahoot URL to a Google Doc takes only a few seconds, yet this action can have a tremendous impact. For instance, with the institution of online access to class activities, I noticed that the attendance rate of one student, whose apprehension toward unfamiliar content often caused her to become physically ill and miss multiple, often consecutive days of school, started to sharply rise. This student found a sense of confidence within herself and realized that she could accomplish greatness through determination and ambition. She is determinedly strengthening her ability to communicate interpersonally and now desires to increase her involvement in extracurricular activities. Furthermore, I began to form more positive connections with students whose comportment had previously been less than desirable. One with a history of acting out because of impulsivity and hyperactivity and a general disinterest in literature transformed into a far more focused and motivated student. This self-styled “Lord of the Kahoot” (a nickname which he coined and highly favors) is presently my assistant during his free period. Another student had struggled significantly with completing homework and asking questions to clarify understanding—actions which resulted in significantly low assessment scores—but now completes her tasks with excitement and enthusiasm. To her, the English room is now an environment that caters to her learning needs and a haven where she feels valued and supported.

Although the 244.37% pretest-to-posttest score improvement demonstrates the benefit of GBL, what inspires me the most to continue are 1) the connections the sophomores made with the material and 2) the emotional maturation attained by various individuals. While test-score data provides concrete proof of scholastic advancement, changes in behavior provide further evidence of student growth. As the sophomores’ lockers are right outside my classroom, I frequently hear them socializing before and after school. During the implementation of GBL, I noticed that their mentioning ENG 10 began to evolve from reminders about deadlines/assessments into discussions about the content of “The Lottery.” Similar to the informal gatherings of John Keating’s students in Dead Poets Society, they would freely converse about the themes/concepts addressed in class in order to form interpretations and viewpoints about material that personally resonated with them.

Final Thoughts
GBL activities such as Kahoot can provide a powerful foundation by which to foster scholastic achievement and engagement. While a positive correlation exists between academic gaming and student learning, teachers should never blindly assume that technology will instantaneously ameliorate curricular outcomes. By itself, technology is but a tool of incredible potential and seemingly endless possibility. The success of this instrument comes from the combination of digital resources with effective pedagogical practices. Teachers who use GBL in such a manner will ultimately better serve the needs of their students and provide a more grounded educational experience.

In addition, one potential factor that may have contributed to the students’ positive performances is that of novelty. This was the first time that this GBL activity had been introduced, therefore the novelty may have played a role in the higher posttest scores. Novel stimuli have been found to enhance visual perception (Schomaker & Meeter, 2012), and the resulting “novelty effect” has also resulted in greater rates of participation in GBL (Ku, Chen, Wu, Lao, A. C, & Chan, 2014; Ronimus, Eklund, Pesu, & Lyytinen, 2019). Follow-up assessments and implementation should provide evidence of whether the levels of excitement will remain consistent in subsequent GBL activities or will decline due to habituation.

Furthermore, low pretest grades may have resulted from students experiencing “The Lottery” for the first time during the in-class reading (as opposed to accessing/reading the digital copy of the story provided via the online class weekly planner), while the improved pretest-to-posttest scores may have resulted solely from reading and reviewing the text in class. To verify that student success resulted from GBL implementation, I could 1) survey the students for verification on whether or not they read the short story prior to taking the pretest and 2) teach the short story unit to different class sections of sophomore English via a variety of methods and compare the variance in test scores.


References
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Colorful Questioning: Student-Led Discussions

Shai D Klima, Kettle Moraine High School, klimas @ kmsd.edu


By nature, English teachers are talkers: We talk about books, writing, our students. And our students are talkers, forever discussing what’s happening in their own lives, on social media, on television. As a talker, I’ve always been interested in how best to harness my suburban high school students’ natural gift of gab and make it a classroom-worthy activity connected to the novels and non-fiction that I teach.

The answer began to develop while I was earning my 316 license from the University of Wisconsin-Stout. In Reading 702: Reading Across the Curriculum, I was introduced to a colorful Question/Answer relationship strategy developed by Billmeyer (2006): student-generated Red, White, Blue and Gold questions. Students create book-club worthy questions as they work in groups to discuss texts. They then divide these questions into colored categories: those whose answers come from the text (red), think and search across the text (white), ask-the-author inferences (blue), and connections to self/world (gold). (More of the work regarding how this technique is useful in the classroom can be found on the Prezi created for that course).

My own students are familiar with literature circles as created by Daniels (2002) because we facilitate them in language arts classes from upper elementary school through high school, and they are familiar with the roles and the turn-taking included in good book-club discussions. What my students needed was a way to use their discussion skills and roles for more meaningful interaction with higher level critical thinking, building “thought-provoking questions [that] can transform students from passive learners to active, curious learners” (Billmeyer, 2006, p. 131). In order to do this, I needed to connect their ability to talk with their ability to think.

Initial Lesson
I began with what my students know, that is, the difference between a thin question (with little to discuss) and a fat question (open to interpretations) because this is the language used in my district. I gave groups of 4 to 5 a set of Post-it notes and asked them to construct one fat and one thin question after reading Poe’s poem “Annabel Lee.” Each group easily wrote these and checked each other’s work. For example, they sorted questions like “According to the poem, what happened to Annabel Lee?” as thin because the poem gives all readers the same answer (that she is killed by a “chill” from the “wind” [15]). They also know that readers might infer as fat the questions that sustain various answers, such as “What is the mental state of the speaker in this poem?”

Next, I used Google Slides and the tip sheet to introduce the four color questions. Afterward, my students learned how to write each type, recognize the questions as listeners, and sort these questions into the four-square grid, then practiced producing each one for “Annabel Lee”:

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They discovered that not all questions fit neatly into one of the four boxes. These multi-color questions are very elusive as they invite multiple ways to respond at several levels. For example, a white/blue/gold question such as “ What comment is Poe making about Christianity by using multiple allusions to it in the poem?” asks the students to probe the text for multiple examples of these allusions, consider why the poet might use these, and how these hint at the theme of Poe’s own religious views. In the book club speaking role, these multi-color questions allow for depth of thought and the ability to build on their peers’ responses in order to elicit further discussion. As listeners and responders, they have various ways to respond, giving them multicolor options to contribute meaningfully to the ongoing conversation.

Group Discussion Procedures
For our next class meeting, they wrote six discussion questions on Post-it notes to be used in small group Socratic circles.

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Before discussion begins, they set personal goals for their participation, listening, or other meaningful contributions. I ask them to write these down above the debrief questions on our outside-circle grid. While in the inner circle, they record their peers’ responses to questions they ask, pushing for variety and complexity. Outside circle members also record ideas in the four areas: what they agree with, disagree with/see differently, what provokes them, and what they wish to discuss further.

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Self Score: Select a score window that fits how you performed today. Justify your scoring by explaining what you did that earns this score. Contrast your choice against the other options. You may write in only one box in each criteria!

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Group discussions follow the Socratic seminar “fishbowl” style. On the day of discussion, students come with colored questions revolving around a specific text quote/reference.

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Discussion begins with about 8 students in an inner circle for 12-15 minutes, with all others listening outside the circle. Everyone has an opportunity to be part of the small discussion circle during our 90-minute block. As part of the discussion, I expect all members, whether in the inner discussion or the outer circle, to take notes on what they hear. This approach is two-fold: they will have a record of new learning acquired during the discussion, and I will capture questions or comments to share during debriefing with the large group, done after all small circles have finished their discussions.

While they are discussing, I am assessing their engagement using the spider-web technique (Wiggins, 2017) in order to grade them in the same targets that they will self-assess after discussion: preparation, listening/note-taking, and participation. I often reveal the webs I create between small-circle discussions, informally assessing what we are doing well and where changes could be made for the next discussion group. Students also get a copy of the web from their small-circle discussion session so they have the visual graphic of their work, including the labeled ideas I am tracking.

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Post Discussion and Next Steps
After small group discussion, the students assess themselves in two ways: first, their performance, and second, the overall flow/discussion process. By setting their personal goals at the start of the session, they give written assessment of that goal, and they assess procedures, time allotments, or other processes involved in the day’s discussions. Finally, they assess themselves and justify their scoring in the three target areas that I also assess. Giving students their webs helps them see what they can do to create realistic goals for their next discussions because their assessment of strengths and weaknesses directly impacts the processes and flow in future sessions, and these suggestions track their own growth from session to session.

I read and reflect on these processes, including what needs to be adjusted or retaught, as well as how to develop the next session’s challenges. I have gotten some of the best insights about what students need or where sessions are lacking from their feedback. In turn, I share their feedback with them and discuss how I will make changes for future sessions. Some of the best challenges that I have gotten include how to organize our use of time and the number of students involved in each small discussion. Two thought-provoking suggestions stand out. First, they felt that they were unable to really “know” what they were doing as they were discussing because they could not objectively see their own work until it was shown in post-session webs.

In essence, we add a middle circle of peers who record what their partner did during the session as a contributor and listener. I found a form that helped peer coaches map their partner’s work and coach areas for improvement. We ran the timed session with one “coaching” break, when they could help each other see what was working well and what changes they might make in order to increase their effectiveness and scores. This has helped them consider their own interpersonal skills and has furthered their metacognition and evaluation of each other during discussion.

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Another technique that I developed because of feedback was discussion “Uno.”

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Students said that depth and time spent on each question was too short. They felt as though group members were more interested in getting through as many questions as possible rather than on deeper contemplation of the text. I implemented a common language for them to create stronger supplemental questions, using ideas borrowed from the specialty cards in the game Uno: They could ask each other to “skip” to another part of the text to prove their response, could “draw two” conclusions about their thinking, “reverse” their thinking and try to prove the opposite view, or come up with a provable “wild card” reading of the text. These skills became part of later discussions, helping students spend more time on individual questions and push each other for deeper thinking.

Conclusions
The discussions have begun to harness the power of talk. Students know that their goals matter and that the feedback they get from one another and from me has potential for implementation. This means that they possess the power to make meaning of the texts we encounter and how we work together to encounter what is meaningful. How we discuss texts allows us to play with the format of the class, its procedures, and the knowledge that comes from discussions. As talkers, this feels like meaningful, worthwhile discussion of their own and each other’s thinking. As a teacher, I get to respond to their needs and talk to them about both the books we share, and also how we share them. Talking about texts becomes playful, student-centered, and a natural extension of the human desire to talk with purpose.


References
Billmeyer, R. (2006). Strategies to engage the mind of the learner: Building strategic learners (2nd ed.). Omaha: Rachel & Associates.

Daniels, H. (2002). Literature circles: Voices and choices in book clubs and reading groups. (2nd ed.). Portland, ME: Stenhouse.

Poe, E. A. (n.d.). Annabel Lee. Retrieved August 15, 2018, from https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/44885/annabel-lee

Wiggins, A. (2017). The best class you never taught: How spider web discussions can turn students into learning leaders. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

The Appeal of Rural Schools: “Old Sport” Day in Northern Wisconsin

Paul Wiegel, Ripon High School/Lumen Charter High School,
wiegelp @ ripon.k12.wi.us


As a kid growing up in Green Bay, I really only wanted one thing when I grew up: I wanted my address to be a fire number. You know, those pre-2000 signs mounted in every rural neighborhood in the state–small white squares with bold black letters and numbers. N6789. Believe me when I tell you that there are scores of people across the country who are completely thrown off when confronted with a letter at the beginning of an address. I used to be one of those. There were Ns and Ws, but I never saw an E or an S. I figured that this was some kind of rural Wisconsin address system quirk that you only understood if you lived “out there” among the country roads. There were no curbs or stop lights to prevent the unfailing optimism that having an address that began with a letter could bring.

As an adult, I got that wish. I’ve been teaching in rural schools ever since I began my career in education twenty-two years ago. I can safely say that all of my ideas about the perceived advantages of rural schools have mostly proven to be true. You get to know students and their families. Every day, you can make offhand remarks about homework to your students working in the grocery store. You can measure your throwing skills against your students by tossing hay bales for the fundraiser during FFA week.

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Back when I graduated from the University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point (a rural school in its own right), I didn’t even apply to city schools. I didn’t want to work there. What was the advantage to working in a building with over one thousand students? As I teacher, I wanted to work closely with colleagues to understand everything that was going on in the 9-12 English classrooms, not be a part of a department of twenty people who might not even see each other. Somehow I thought the trees and corn fields would foster a love of literature among students. “Of course they’ll like to read some Thoreau, they live in rural America. We’ll all scoff at Gatsby and his excess–they’ll get it.”

It was all a bit naive, but I’ve never looked back. It doesn’t hurt that I’ve always considered myself somewhat of a nature person anyway. Perhaps that was the biggest advantage I had. The crickets and owls in the neighborhoods I’ve lived in have always been part of what I liked, and one of my first big purchases with my early paychecks was an aluminum canoe. But the small-town classroom elements have their own rewards aside from the natural settings. In many rural Wisconsin towns, the high school is the central element. There are more people in the high school building on most days than in any other building in the town. Almost everyone knows a teenager who is sitting in a classroom. For those reasons, what goes on there seems to carry a little more weight. How the building looks is a marker for the town–and that doesn’t mean it has to be pretty. I’ve seen some old, red brick high schools in parts of northern Wisconsin that would be the envy of any district. They were built as a monument to what that small town thinks about educating its youth. Bricks mean “We’re not going anywhere. This is our school.”

One of the more interesting parts of teaching in a rural school is the way things quickly take on a life beyond the classroom walls. A number of years ago, I created “Old Sport Day.” This is an activity that I began while Juniors were reading The Great Gatsby which required, as an “official” assignment, all of my American Literature students to say “old sport” at the end of everything they said that day. I usually did it around chapter six, when even those who were “lightly reading” were aware of Gatsby’s idiosyncrasies with language. I would make about 300 paper buttons for the occasion and hand them out all morning: “Happy Old Sport Day!” “Darth Vader is an Old Sport” “I’ve got ‘gonnegtions’ with Meyer Wolfshiem.” I don’t let anybody speak to me without ending their statement with “old sport.”

“Can I run to my locker?”
“I’m sorry, what’s that?”
“Can I go to my locker?”
“I don’t think I understand.”
“Oh. Can I go to my locker, old sport?”
“That’s better. Yes, go ahead…old sport.”

Seniors want to get in on it remembering all the fun from last year, and everyone has a blast. Now, I’m sure bigger schools can create this kind of vibe. I don’t think that just because the student handbook features instructions for proper parking of snowmobiles that we’ve cornered the market on building community. The difference, I think, is the almost total visibility. I never announce this ahead of time, but by second hour, the whole school knows it’s Old Sport Day. By lunch I’m out of buttons. I don’t think we’re having more fun than an urban school, I just think things like this can’t spread so quickly in a bigger school to become a “thing.”

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One of the biggest advantages, though, is exemplified in my school’s bike racks. I took this picture at lunch one day when I noticed that none of them were locked–even the one with an actual unused lock wrapped around the handle bars. This is a perfect example of the appeal of teaching in rural Wisconsin. At the back of the school, away from traffic and lots of witnesses, a handful of kids didn’t see a need to lock their bikes. Why? This isn’t a utopia–kids steal stuff here. But to me, this marked an overall trust and faith in the community as a whole.

 

It’s likely that nobody is going to steal your bike, and one of the reasons is because if someone sees you riding it, they’ll likely know who the bike really belongs to. The unlocked bikes suggest a faith in small towns that goes beyond students and teachers. They seem to indicate that the students believe this school and the community as a whole are going to do right by everyone. Maybe one of the reasons the kids don’t lock their bikes is because this belief is just part of growing up here. I’m not saying bigger districts are less caring or less safe. I do, however, think kids in rural districts in Wisconsin feel like they are safer. And, as we all know, when kids feel safe and welcomed, they tend to be more engaged with their education.

In my experience, this is the biggest advantage that rural Wisconsin schools can claim, and as a teacher I’ve gained the benefits from. I’m sure I’ll finish out my career in Wisconsin’s rural schools. I’ll keep making the daily commute in much the same way I’ve always done–factoring the extra time for tractors on Hwy. D as fall harvest time or spring planting requires–and enjoying every minute of it.

Poetry Unveiled

Dan Hansen and Becky Hansen, The Poetry Professors, poetryprofs@gmail.com

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Ask students why so many of them hate poetry, and you will get some typical answers of “It’s stupid” or “It’s boring.” But dig a little deeper and you will find that students are really feeling frustration. They have come to understand poetry as a guessing game: even when they’re right about the message of a poem, they don’t really know why. We’ve found this to be equally true of English instructors who have decided that poetry isn’t relevant. Some have given up the practice entirely because they were never given the proper tools. This is why we launched The Poetry Professors in September of 2017 to help teachers provide students with the ability to authentically connect and read poetry, or as we like to say, “Less Guessing, More Accessing.”


Why Poetry?
While poetry may seem absent from the Common Core due to its focus on nonfiction, poetry is still essential. For instance, standard RL10 says that students need to be able to read literature of complexity, including poetry, appropriate for their grade level. Now, imagine a scenario in which students are asked to read a novel such as 1984 their senior year, when all they’ve read previously is a few primers in elementary school and a mid-level Chris Crutcher novel without studying characterization, symbolism, and theme development. What chance do those students have of uncovering the nuances of dystopian literature present in Orwell’s masterpiece? This is the state of poetry for many high school students, and the Common Core tells us it must be otherwise.

The Common Core also emphasizes a multitude of approaches to and high repetitions of each skill. The length of the typical poem allows significantly more repetition of several language and word choice standards. Additionally, no other type of literature heightens skill development like poetry. Words are at a premium, and a poem often turns on the interpretation of a single word.

 

Unveiled
Now that we’ve talked about the what and the why, let’s get into the details of the how. Without a doubt, make sure you aren’t forcing your students into one “right” answer. If they can back up their thoughts with evidence, let them hold onto it for that layer. Students already approach poetry with trepidation, and the more you tell them they are wrong “because the book says so,” the more quickly they will go back to hating it. We’re giving you the tools to woo them out of that attitude, but it will take time.

We wouldn’t be real English teachers if our methodology didn’t contain an acronym which walks students through five steps–“UnVEIL”: Understanding, Voice, Events, Interpret Techniques, and Look/Listen/Lesson.


Un: Understand
. The first step is understanding the words used and then understanding how the words are used in the poem. Poetry is not the time to do vocabulary. Most students are going to approach this process tentatively, so don’t make them memorize new words. Instead, give them access to resources that will make them confident in the denotation of each word. Only then will they feel free to explore the connotations. For instance, let’s look at this verse from “Judith” By D. H. Skogen:

not with expectant eyes

not need for validation

but by this divine clarity

the stricken always show

The underlined words could all cause students to trip up. In this case, they might conclude on that the clarity itself is holy. But it is supposed to be understanding at the same level as God in His omnipotence. The words each student readily understands will vary widely, especially those in ELL programs. Make the process of looking up new words a standard so students aren’t intimidated to ask.


V: Voice
. The second layer is to learn about the voice of the poem. In this step of the process, students use character inquiry tools to explore the speaker of the poem to determine perspective, tone, location, and other literary devices and techniques. The human inclination is to read something in our own voice because ours is the only head we live in. In a novel, short story, or epic poem, you have lots of time to get to know the narrator. Most of the time in poetry you don’t. You get ten or twenty lines, and students will naturally believe the voice to be either themselves or the author, which is why we frequently start poetry units with something very engaging and non-threatening, like Shel Silverstein’s “If I Had a Brontosaurus”:

If I had a brontosaurus

I would name him Morris or Horace;

But if suddenly one day he had a lot of little brontosauri

I would change his name to Laurie.

After reading this poem, we ask what the voice of the poem is and generally get … crickets, so, we start asking a set of guiding questions. The first conversation goes something like this:

Instructor: Is the voice young or old?

Student: I don’t know.

Instructor: Are they 47?

Student: No.

Instructor: Why?

Student: Because they think they could own a dinosaur.

Instructor: At what age are humans obsessed with owning dinosaurs?

Student: Like 4 or 5 or 6. Oh, like my cousin Tanner who has an entire collection and can tell you all their features.

Instructor: What else are kids in the 4-6 range just starting to understand that we see in this poem?

Student: *Crickets*

Instructor: Why would they change the dino’s name?

Student: *Lightbulb*

Instructor: Right. They are just starting to understand the difference between mommy dinosaurs and daddy dinosaurs. How does this little voice feel about that?

Student: They think it’s funny.

Instructor: Yes. This has the tone of two little kids giggling in the bathroom about how boys and girls are different.

Now, instead of this poem being “dumb” as viewed from a teen perspective, students can see these thoughts as the precious, adorable insights of a young child. And just that easily we’ve gotten into some questions that will continue to guide us through the voice layer, which is always the starting point:

Who are you?

Where are you?

When are you?

What do you look like?

How do you feel about what’s happening?

Instructors and students will rarely be able to answer all of these questions, and sometimes you’ll want to dive into one of them more deeply. The value is not in being able to answer every single question; the value is in exploring all of them and digging out that which you and your students can dig out.

Let’s explore these questions in the Emily Dickinson classic “I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died”:

I heard a Fly buzz – when I died –

The Stillness in the Room

Was like the Stillness in the Air –

Between the Heaves of Storm –

 

The Eyes around – had wrung them dry –

And Breaths were gathering firm

For that last Onset – when the King

Be witnessed – in the Room –

 

I willed my Keepsakes – Signed away

What portion of me be

Assignable – and then it was

There interposed a Fly –

 

With Blue – uncertain – stumbling Buzz –

Between the light – and me –

And then the Windows failed – and then

I could not see to see –


So, let’s ask this voice our questions:

  1. Who are you? An older woman, someone who has taken time to get all of her affairs in order: “Signed away / What portion of me be / Assignable.”
  2. Where are you? On her deathbed with her family gathered around. They’ve already done all their mourning because “The Eyes around – had wrung them dry.” She’s been dying for a while.
  3. When are you? Some of the words here indicate this is taking place in an older America. It’s also daytime because there is light outside the window.
  4. What do you look like? An older lady; we don’t have anything more.
  5. How do you feel about what’s happening? She has clearly prepared for death and has gathered everyone around to witness her last big moment. This is now being interrupted by a fly. She is annoyed by its lack of manners.

We use some fun techniques, including a game we call “Lines and Voices,” where you can print a variety of poetic lines and a variety of voices so students can experiment with how using a different voice changes the meaning of the poem. Sometimes we have students fill out a dating profile or a police report for a voice.

Working through the Voice layer, you can get students first to a place where they understand the who and the where of what is happening in this poem. Having those tools in place immediately makes it easier to start exploring the layer that they want to jump to: What is happening in this poem?

 

E: Events. After digging into voice, we start exploring what is happening, and, again, face the dreaded crickets:

Instructor: What is happening in this poem?

Student: Nothing.

Instructor: Nothing?

Student: No, it’s just a guy sitting around thinking.

Instructor: Exactly.

If we tell our students we will “think about” allowing them to use their notes on their exam, they expect we will engage in deep, existential contemplation over this question, right? Close reading techniques allow them to find and piece together those events into a picture or a story. We classify events as a voice performing actions, having thoughts, or expressing emotions, or as physical events, intellectual events, and emotional events.

There is a lot of internal dialogue in poetry. Voices frequently ponder, think, consider, and reflect. We sometimes get caught up in the fact that we believe analyzing is the opposite of poetic. Not true. Voices are always evaluating their choices and analyzing their decisions. When did I see signs you weren’t mine? Why did I let you go?

We find it helpful to access events by finding the first event and then asking “newspaper style” questions:

  1. What is happening?
  2. To whom is it happening?
  3. Where is it happening? (Which can be different from “Where is the voice?”)
  4. When is it happening?
  5. Why is it happening?
  6. How is it happening?

Again, you will not be able to answer every question about every event in every poem. That’s not the point. The point is to explore them all and see what you find. Let’s take a look at this section from Maxwell Bodenheim’s poem “Thoughts While Walking”:

A steel hush freezes the trees.

It is my mind stretched to stiff lace,

And draped on high wide thoughts.

First event

  1. What is happening? Freezing
  2. To whom is it happening? Trees
  3. How is it happening? By a steel hush

Next event

  1. What is happening? Mind stretched
  2. To whom is it happening? The voice
  3. How is it happening? To lace – stretched so thin it now has holes in it

Next event

  1. What is happening? Mind draped
  2. To whom is it happening? The voice
  3. Where is it happening? On high, wide thoughts


Sometimes you will ask a question for which the poem has no answer. This is actually good; the more frequently you ask students those questions, the more they trust that this really is a process and will explore and play with language. In the event examples above, we intentionally left out “When is it happening” because there is no answer for that, and in the first two examples we can answer “how,” but not in the third. These inquiries also help detect figurative language when we get to our next step. In this poem, the event is the mind being stretched like lace and draped on deep thoughts, and it would be really gruesome if that were a literal, physical event. It is an intellectual event during which the voice is struggling to wrap his or her mind around some concepts that are lofty. What does all that mean? We don’t know yet. We haven’t gotten to that part. This is a great time to let your students start spinning some ideas, but they will want to jump right to the final layer: “The poem means_________.” It is not time to land on an interpretation yet. We’ve only just begun.


I: Interpret Techniques
. Note the title of this section is not “Interpret the poem.” Students will want to interpret the poem, but they don’t have all the information they need to make an informed declaration. Poetry isn’t just about what is happening to whom, but also how those events are shaped through literary devices and techniques, such as parallelism, rhyme, metaphor, and personification, that do more than sculpt pretty language. Merely finding them does little to enhance student understanding. Studying author’s craft in poetry allows students to move beyond being able to label a technique and into understanding the reasons techniques are used. Then, students can see how these elements contribute to the poem as a whole.

This is probably the least understood and most important layer. Techniques are like Easter eggs in movies, like how we had to go back and re-watch that entire season of Dr. Who to find the “Bad Wolf” in every episode. When you find the cool thing, you get excited. They are things that don’t always affect the plot at the moment, but they enhance the overall meaning. Continuing our television metaphor, the words of the poem are the plot and the script while the rhyme scheme, rhythm, and assonance are the lighting, costumes, and set dressing. Just as a camera angle directs audience attention to a certain actor, so techniques highlight where the poet wants the reader to pay attention. These are all the things in between the words that make the poetry.

When it comes to poetic technique, educators have talked about it with students since elementary school, so they will be familiar concepts. However, things get a little more challenging when we dive into helping students understand why a particular technique is used. The classroom conversation usually goes like this:

Instructor: Find the metaphor.

Student: There?

Instructor: Good job. Five points.

The question that rarely gets answered for the student is: Why did I find the metaphor? That question can be expanded to include: Why do I care about how long the stanzas are? Why do I care about alliteration? Why do I care about one piece of punctuation?

We’ve divided techniques into three different categories:

Figurative Language: What do we read?

Sound Devices: What do we hear?

Grammatical Devices: What do we see?

To make it easier for students to access, we post a chart with some of the big ones and then add to it as a class throughout the year as we study poetry. For example:

 

Figurative Language

Simile/Metaphor – compare things positively to intensify or help us relate to the unfamiliar

Personification – give human traits to something to help us empathize

 

 

Sound Devices

Rhyme scheme – words that rhyme help us anticipate and speed up the poem. Near or off rhymes do the opposite

Parallelism – long lists or similar structure can draw attention and intensify the importance of an image

Grammatical Devices

Capitalizations – noting where words are capitalized where they shouldn’t be or aren’t where they should be makes us question why

Word Order – when a poem starts sounding like Yoda because of an unusual word order. Unusual word order changes the rhythm of a line or emphasizes a word that isn’t usually highlighted.


Then, as we work through a poem, we ask students to answer three questions:

  1. What is the technique?
  2. What does that technique do in language on a regular basis?
  3. What is that trait doing in this poem specifically?

Let’s look at an example from Wilfred Owen’s “Dulce et Decorum Est”:

Bent double, like old beggars under sacks,

Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge,

Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs,

  1. What is the technique? Simile – a simile compares the traits of two things positively using like or as. There are two similes in this stanza: “Bent double, like old beggars” and “coughing like hags.”
  2. What does that technique do in language on a regular basis? A simile helps us relate to something more familiar or intensify something we might relate to so closely that it’s no longer powerful.
  3. What is that trait doing in this poem specifically? “Bent double, like old beggars” When I think of bending over I generally go straight to looking for socks under the couch. Yes, I feel like I have a hard time straightening up sometimes, but this isn’t a hardship in my world. Students are even younger and can stand right up again after being bent double. But even those spry young people will get a feel for the weight of being bent like “old beggars,” and then it intensifies with “under sacks.” Sacks implies weighty things full of flour or wheat, and the heft of those sacks can be understood. Then we have “coughing like hags.” This isn’t a Delores Umbridge little throat-clear. This is the hacking of someone with a long-term lung disease, and most of your students will be able to think of someone in their lives who has a smoker’s cough and can come close to hearing this cough in their minds.


Let’s look at a grammatical device example from Robert Frost’s “The Road Not Taken,” because these can be a little trickier:

I shall be telling this with a sigh

Somewhere ages and ages hence:

Two roads diverged in a wood, and I—

I took the one less traveled by,

And that has made all the difference.


In this case we are going to talk about that pesky colon in the final stanza:

  1. What is the technique? That pesky colon in the final stanza.
  2. What does that technique do in language on a regular basis? “A colon instead of a semicolon may be used between independent clauses when the second sentence explains, illustrates, paraphrases, or expands on the first sentence” (“Colons”).
  3. What is that trait doing in this poem specifically? If its purpose is to “expand on the first sentence,” we can say that everything after the colon expands on the two lines preceding it. In other words, even though the rest of the poem indicates that the two paths he encountered that day were really the same, he’s going to tell this story in his old age and embellish it, as our grandparents are inclined to do, and say that he took the one less traveled by (even though neither really was less traveled) and it made all the difference in his life (even though it didn’t really).

That little colon will crush all the dreams of your American Lit students who were so excited to finally say the message of this poem is to “be yourself” when, in actuality, the message of this poem might be closer to: “old people embellish the truth.”

 

L: Look/Listen/Lesson. Ah, the moment you’ve all been waiting for. And the moment you will find your students wanting to jump to. They want to read a poem once and say, “This is the message.” It’s our job to help them use these layers to come to a supportable determination of what the final takeaway of any given poem is.

Contrary to popular student belief, not every poem means “be yourself,” “follow your dreams,” or “don’t let others tell you what to do.” In fact, sometimes a poem doesn’t teach a lesson at all. Sometimes the poet simply wants to freeze a moment in time and study it. “If I Had a Brontosaurus” communicated no great mysteries of life message. Silverstein is the master of freezing these moments of childhood and embracing their playfulness in a way that even adult readers can enjoy.

Sometimes a poet wants to embrace a singular sound and examine it more closely. Lewis Carroll’s “The Jabberwocky” does not have a deep meaning, but it does demonstrate how we can take language that we don’t understand and yet fully understand the events. Sometimes a poem like “Night Mail” by W.H. Auden works to embody the sounds of its subject:

This is the night mail crossing the Border,

Bringing the cheque and the postal order,

 

Letters for the rich, letters for the poor,

The shop at the corner, the girl next door.

These first two stanzas feel like a train chugging along the track. When the train reaches the top of the hill and begins its descent, however:

Letters of thanks, letters from banks,

Letters of joy from girl and boy,

Receipted bills and invitations

To inspect new stock or to visit relations,

The fact that these lines are closer together and start playing with internal rhyme (see how we used the information from a previous layer to justify our answer?) speeds up how we read this poem, which leads us to feel the train going faster and faster down the hill. The author wants us to hear the train while he discusses its cargo.

Once students are open to the fact that sometimes an author’s message isn’t a message, they can feel more confident using all the evidence they collected to come to a conclusion about the poem’s “Look” at a moment, its “Listen” of a sound technique, or its “Lesson.” The UnVEIL approach provides the scaffolding for this literary analysis through the V, E, and I layers so all of their evidence is there in the work they’ve already done.

Let’s walk through an abbreviated version of the whole process with this poem from Neil Hilborn’s “Fabric Swatches, Paint Samples”:

I will, in all my hereditary optimism,

try to be honest my dear, not just

about where I am and particularly

with whom, but also where I am in the vast,

melodramatic plane that is my feelings

and where I have placed you

and how exactly to cross

the Stupid Desert to find me.

There is quicksand in the Stupid

Desert that I call my exes—they don’t

hate you but, my darling, they also

do not know you, which is not to say

I don’t speak of you, because I do,

I do, to my therapist

who I fired, to the women

at bars and at work and

at Roller Derby bouts who confuse

me for an exit sign, darling,

I use you, yes, to feel secure or loved,

or like a tire wrapped in chains,

so let us say at least that I do not

use you abnormally. All of this

is to say that, should you move here

to live with me and the mental

disorders, I will not lie to you. The sea

is so wide and our boat is so small.

Voice – We have a younger, awkward adult with some mental disorders he’s trying to manage. At the same time, he is trying to love. Our evidence: We know this is a younger adult because he hasn’t settled down yet. He hangs out at bars and roller derby bouts where he goes largely unnoticed. We know he struggles with some mental disorders because he talks about his therapist. We also know he’s awkward because he uses images like “a tire wrapped in chains” and “The Stupid Desert” which are not your typical, warm and fuzzy images in love poetry. If we were to ask how this voice feels about what’s happening, we would easily get to: he is eager for success, but so afraid it won’t work out.


Events
– using our newspaper question technique, we start at the top of the poem:

  1. What is happening? The voice will be honest
  2. To whom is it happening? My dear
  3. How is it happening? In optimism
  4. About what? Where I am, who I’m with, feelings, where I put you, how to cross the Stupid Desert

The fact that the last question is such a long list is something we note with students. You can hear the awkwardness as he rambles on. Awkward nerds who have mental disorders tend to be pretty afraid that the people who love them will eventually stop loving them. Deciding the right time to share which piece of oneself is terrifying and we get this from our poor voice. He’s warning “you” (a woman he loves) about how hard it will be for them to come together and be together, but he wants to try.

  1. What is happening? Voice – speaks of “you”
  2. To whom is it happening? fired therapist, women
  3. Where is it happening? at bars, at work, at Roller Derby
  4. When is it happening? Presumably all the time, because those locations pretty much sum up everywhere our voice is going to go

Perhaps when you looked at that poem, you arranged the events a little differently. That’s fine. Your students might do the same. The key isn’t to be perfect, the key is to build a scaffold where you can figure out what is happening here.


Interpret techniques
– “Stupid Desert” and wrapped like a “tire in chains” are both unusual images when it comes to love poetry. We’re already deep into wondering what these images mean when the voice says the way he loves is not “abnormally.” The fact that he has to say, “This is not abnormal” indicates it is entirely “abnormal” while at the same time asking “what is normal?” when it comes to love. These images are all designed to make the reader feel a little off-kilter, like the voice himself is.


Look/Listen/Lesson
– the message of this poem is encompassed in the last line: Love is a wide sea and their boat is so small. It is a difficult navigation, but he wants so desperately to try to make the journey with the woman he loves. Since the message is clarified in the last line, students may not have trouble guessing it. But push further by asking them, “How do you know?” and you’ll find they’re still guessing and struggling. The notes from the V, E, and I layers above give them the material they need to answer the deeper questions and feel confident in doing so.

 

Make the Teaching of Poetry Great Again
As we look back on why poetry fell out of our good graces so many years ago, it wasn’t because we lost our love for the art form, but because, as readers, we lost our ability to access it and just started guessing as to why we thought a poem meant what it did. We, as a culture of educators, stopped teaching it through a lens of author’s craft and how poets wove words into dense snippets of creative brilliance; it became a unit to “just get through.” That frustration has now trickled down from instructor to student for years.

All is not lost. Poetry is not irrelevant. We just need a new system to restore student confidence in the process. We encourage you to join us in lifting the VEIL on poetry so students can marvel at the beauty in words again.

 


References
Auden, W. H. Night mail. Retrieved April 6, 2018, from PoemHunter website: https://www.poemhunter.com/poem/night-mail-2/page-1/

Bodenheim, M. Thoughts while walking. Retrieved April 6, 2018, from Bartleby website: http://www.bartleby.com/300/590.html

Colons. In GrammarBook.com. Retrieved April 6, 2018, from https://www.grammarbook.com/punctuation/colons.asp

Dickinson, E. I heard a Fly buzz – when I died. Retrieved April 6, 2018, from Poetry Foundation website: https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/45703/i-heard-a-fly-buzz-when-i-died-591

Frost, R. The road not taken. Retrieved April 6, 2018, from Poetry Foundation website: https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/44272/the-road-not-taken

Hilborn, N. (2015). Fabric swatches, paint samples. In Our numbered days (p. 12). Minneapolis: Button Poetry.

Owen, W. Dulce et decorum est. Retrieved April 6, 2018, from Poetry Foundation website: https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/46560/dulce-et-decorum-est

Silverstein, S. If I had a brontosaurus. Retrieved April 6, 2018, from All Poetry website: https://allpoetry.com/If-I-Had-A-Brontosaurus

Skogen, D. H. (2004). Judith. In D. H. Skogen (Author), Langsyne (pp. 200-201). Madison: Layered.

Student-Led Literature Circles in an Interdisciplinary High School Classroom

Erin Jensen, Rock University High School, erinjensen @ janesville.k12.wi.us

_____________________________________________________________________________

We all know that it can be difficult to inspire students to read. More than ever, they need a particular set of questions answered before they face the task: Why should I? How does this help me? How does this apply to me? Is it worth it? These questions are difficult to answer:

Student: “Why should I read this?”

Teacher: “It’s a wonderful book, and it checks the boxes of state and national English standards!”
Student: “How does this help me?”

Teacher: “You’re reading! The mind is a muscle that needs to be exercised, so your mind will function better if you read. PLEASE READ!”
Student “How does this apply to me?”

Teacher: “Well, the character’s a kid, you were once a kid, and he’s going through this life-changing moment. But I want you to find a connection to the story, find what it means to you.”

 

Student: “Is it worth it?”

Teacher: “Of course it is, but I want you to determine that worth.”

 

Students do read. However, their daily reading often consists of skimming social media, picking and choosing what posts and articles to dive into. [Fun fact: If you were born starting around 1982, then social media platforms were most likely a significant part of your adolescence, starting with electronic bulletin board systems migrating to the Internet by way of Compuserve and AOL in the mid-1990s (Fuchs, 2014)]. Despite all this reading, high school students who regularly spend time on social media also earn lower reading scores than those who do not (Posso, 2016). According to Wisconsin Literacy, Inc. (2018), 1.5 million adults in the state qualify for literacy services. For students enrolled in public schools, the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (2017) focuses on ACT Reading Scores when assessing literacy levels, currently averaging at 19.2, which is below the 20.1 national level. According to the National Assessment of Adult Literacy (2018), a true study focusing on literacy in Wisconsin was last conducted more than a decade ago, in 2003. The “below average” numbers and minimal research into literacy mean that educators cannot simply be passive about the number of students who shun assigned readings.

So, how do we inspire them to read more than just social media posts? There has yet to be a map showing us the right path to take, but I have found that allowing students more choice when it comes to assigned reading is a step in the right direction.

Student choice is not new. Allowing them to determine how to present evidence of their learning has been encouraged over the last few years (Patall, Cooper, & Wynn, 2010). However, the push for this individualized approach has not been felt in the area of reading, for assessing ability and comprehension allows for little creativity. Reading, although a complex cognitive process, has become an involuntary activity of recognizing symbols and determining their meaning and, in school, repeating that rote exercise via a series of questions (Gallagher, 2009). As students learn to read, there is an excitement of acquiring a new skill, but as they continue to read, it becomes a task or chore. To get that excitement back, we need to give them more say in what they read and how they show us that they did.

Rock University High School (RUHS) caters to students who want a smaller environment to harness their postsecondary futures through interdisciplinary, subject-integrated classrooms in school and practical applicability outside of school. Also, as a charter school housed in a technical college, reading literature, though happens to be a point of contention: “I’m going to be a nuclear technician, so why do I have to read Catch-22.” Therefore, within my interdisciplinary Social Studies and English courses, I’m honest and say that literature doesn’t seem to fit neatly on their career paths, but the themes within the book and skills used to understand the book do fit. My first semester teaching this course taught me quite a bit about student engagement and success in the units tied to novels: both engagement and success decrease. Before the second semester, I decided that I would do some research to find more books that fit the literature and English standards, since we read three to four novels plus supplemental materials through the year. After locating these titles, I would have students vote on which most interested them. In some cases, I used their responses to schedule books for the semester or to pick literature circle groups (Daniels, 2002). Surprise! Although this “majority rule” method still made some students feel less than elated with the final selection, the second semester went much more smoothly than the first.

The most successful reading unit involved literature circles focusing on both fiction and non-fiction texts contextualizing World War II. Although it is important to find an array of books that meet district, state, and national standards, this is where I still have some control. I selected five books: Hillenbrand’s Unbroken, Zusak’s The Book Thief, Spiegelman’s Maus, Heller’s Catch-22, and Knowles’ A Separate Peace. Of course, funding for that many sets can get expensive; however, because literature circles should not include more than six students, I needed fewer copies (Daniels, 2002).

First, I asked the students to rank the books on a scale of 1 (most likely to read) to five (least likely to read) based solely on description because many may otherwise opt for only one specific book or because a particular book may be too simple or difficult for some without their realizing it. Knowing second and third choices allows me to please everyone as best as I can.

After the students rated the books, I grouped them into literature circles (essentially, the survey groups them, I simply share the results). If we have an overwhelming number in one particular group, I ask students if they would mind reading their second or third choice.

Next, I made a timeline establishing deadlines for readings and journal assignments based on their role: connector, artist, discussion director, literary luminary, and researcher. Each student in the group is to play each role once in order to branch out and try new ways of connecting to the novel.

I usually keep reading journals prompts open ended. I want them to write their reactions, their questions, their predictions, and their connections, and I try to remind them to record page numbers in each entry in order to help with literary analysis later. At the bottom of the journal entry, there are interpretive big questions for them to think about as they read, focusing on major events, characters, and authorial choice. They can refer to these questions in their journals, but they’re not required to answer them independently. Instead, the questions are to be completed when they meet with their groups (see Appendix B for the timeline and prompts specific to The Book Thief).

When the literature circles come together, they are to discuss their role, share their journal entries, and try to answer some of the big questions. Since my class is an interdisciplinary, dual credit course, the readings go along with a historical theme. This unit focuses on Total War, which covers the many conflicts involving the United States, specifically those historically know as wars: Revolutionary, Civil, World Wars, Vietnam, and the current War on Terror. This course does not have a text book, so students use a multitude of different online resources. Primary sources were mostly retrieved from the Presidential Libraries and the Library of Congress databases. Secondary and tertiary sources come from BadgerLink Explora, Britannica online, and media resources such as the BBC, CNN, and the New York Times. From defining what conflict and war are, to reading perspectives from both the anti- and pro-war movements, students get a better understanding of why conflicts and wars happen and their significance in United States history. Sequencing should allow one to two class periods or fifty minutes a week on literature circles, while the rest of the week should focus on target objectives.

Toward the end of the novels, I introduce the final project, which includes both a literary analysis based on the big questions and a creative element to be completed independently (see Appendix B). This individual work places all accountability on each student and reinforces the objective that each student must make connections and interpretations autonomously.

This unit had one of my highest success rates with over 90% of the class completing their literature circle work, journals, and both portions of the project, so I applied this strategy to other lessons as well. Allowing students to choose the books also invalidated the excuse “I didn’t want to read that book anyway.” Yes, students could potentially change this excuse into “I realized that I did not really like the book”; nevertheless, there was a bit more accountability on the students’ part. Choice empowered many to read and do the work.

Again, literature circles are not new, but at RUHS, where we are trying to help students forge a career path, we need to find ways to show them how reading fits in. Literature circles focus on active reading and on the skills and the collaboration needed to understand what is being read. They strengthen their written communication skills and they get to express themselves creatively. I believe literature circles are effective ways to empower students to read.

Students can read, and students want to read, but it is crucial that we find ways to inspire them. Choice answers their prerequisite questions. Choice engages. Choice holds students accountable, and choice gets them reading.
 

References
ACT data and results. (2017). Retrieved April 24, 2018, from https://dpi.wi.gov/assessment/ACT/data/act

Daniels, H. (2002). Literature circles: Voice and choice in book clubs and reading groups. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.

Fuchs, C. (2014). Social media: A critical introduction. London: Sage.

Gallagher, K. (2009). Readicide: How schools are killing reading and what you can do about it. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.

Literacy statistics. (2018). Retrieved April 24, 2018, from http://wisconsinliteracy.org/find_literacy_program/statistics.html

Posso, A. (2016). Internet usage and educational outcomes among 15-year-old Australian students. International Journal of Communication, 10, 3851-3876. Retrieved from Communication & Mass Media Complete database. (Accession No. 127361840)

Patall, E. A., Cooper, H., & Wynn, S. R. (2010). The effectiveness and relative importance of choice in the classroom. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(4), 896-915. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019545

What is NAAL? (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2018, from National Assessment of Adult Literacy website: https://nces.ed.gov/naal/

 

Appendix A. The Book Thief Timeline and Journal Prompts
As you read, you will be responsible for thoughtfully keeping a journal and answering discussion questions.

May 11 Introduction
DUE DATE Part/Chapter Pages Journals
May 12 Prologue, Part One & Part Two 1-122 2 Entries
May 17 Part Three & Four 123-170 2 Entries
May 18 Part Five 239-303 1 Entry
May 19 Part Six 305-350 1 Entry
May 24 Part Seven & Eight 351-455 2 Entries
May 25 Part Nine, Ten, & Epilogue 457-550 3 Entries
May26 (no school)
May 31st Final Group Project Completion


Big Questions (by the end of the book you will be able to answer these questions thoughtfully):

  1. What was the author’s purpose for choosing Death as a narrator? Is this a trustworthy narrator? How does Death see what a human narrator might not?
  2. Knowing that Liesel is called a “thief,” how does the book complicate our ideas of justice and judgment? Which characters do you view as just or unjust or as brave or cowardly, and why? Which events or details most color your perceptions of these characters?
  3. What choices do characters make about groups they will belong to? What groups do they belong to without choice? What are the consequences?
  4. Discuss Liesel’s friendship with Rudy. Does she love him in the way he loves her, or is it a child’s love? Do you think he reminds her of her brother?
  5. Zusak’s books often portray characters with a tendency to fight—including Max and Liesel. Is a child who fights more forgivable that an adult who fights? Why?
  6. From Hans to Liesel to the mayor’s wife, discuss how some of the characters in The Book Thief deal with their past. Discuss themes of memory and punishment.
  7. Is Hans Hubermann courageous? How does he show courage, or lack of courage?
  8. Name some acts of resistance in the book, from large to small. What does the author intend by including these acts?
  9. Who has power in this book? How does Liesel gain power, and how does Max? Toward the end of the novel, Liesel remarks that words give power. How so?
  10. Discuss the meaning of Max painting over Mein Kampf. What is he able to express through this action that he cannot convey in person?

 

Daily Chapter Assignments. For every chapter assignment you will pose three discussion questions and write journal entries.

Questions: All questions need to be open ended (unless you have a follow-up question or would like an explanation). These questions are to be discussed in your lit circle, and you are to write down your and your peers’ answers.

Journal Entries: The following are examples of journal entries (try to mix it up every entry!) Journals do not need to shared with lit circles:

  1. Write thoughts that are going through your head as you read the novel.
  2. Note times when your reading changes:a. You see something you didn’t see before.
    b. You recognize a pattern–the images start to overlap, gestures or phrases recur, some details seem associated with each other.
    c. The story seems to be about something different from what you thought.
    d. You discover that you were misreading.
    e. You realize that the writer has introduced a new context or new perspective.
    f. You see new vocabulary, especially new words repeated throughout (the Merriam-Webster app is very useful, and its voice search feature handy).
  3. Note times when you are surprised or puzzled:a. Something just doesn’t fit.
    b. Things don’t make sense—pose explicitly the question or problem that occurs to you.
  4. Note details that seem important and that make you look again.
  5. Note times when you relate to a character. What is relatable, what do you two share, how are you different?
  6. Note ways in which the story makes you speculate about real life or a connection to another text or even another academic discipline.
  7. Note your first impression of the ending–what “ended”? (How many times have you read a short story or a novel only to find yourself really confused about the ending?)
  8. Note rhetorical/stylistic devices (diction, syntax, figurative language, tone, imagery) that you recognize–how do they contribute to your reading of the text?
  9. Check for hyperbole, such as when is a character (or the author) is exaggerating or over-reacting. What makes it hyperbolic? How would you have written that passage?
  10. What is the relationship of a sentence, passage, or chapter to the entire reading?
  11. What is the function of the passages that don’t carry plot function?
  12. Make a claim about a chapter. Support it with details.
  13. As part of re-reading, what is the function of a chapter to the whole novel?
  14. Find several details in a passage and explain their functions.
  15. Explain where you feel the author has used symbolism.
  16. How would you draw (or re-draw) a scene that you thought was interesting or would be better illustrated?
  17. Find some complexities in a passage and explain their functions.
  18. Activity for Integrated Citation: “Says/Does Analysis”

Short Quote → What does it mean? → What is its function or purpose?

 

Appendix B. Final Creative Project
You will create a project that demonstrates your engagement with and understanding of the text. Productive projects combine imagination and intellect and are multi‐faceted and multi‐layered. They are serious and academic as well as creative and inventive and should be viewed as a chance to demonstrate the final product of all your classroom and individual efforts.

Your presentation should demonstrate critical reflection on and interpretation of your chosen novel. You might consider exploring a theme, image, or character, or you might think about the effect of some literary aspect of the novel. Whatever you choose, you should be able to articulate a meaningful connection between your project and the book. Be creative and express your own unique point of view!
Some Ideas
Art. Painting, Sculpture, Drawing, Mixed Media

Music or Drama Composition. CD compilation, musical/song performance, mini opera or musical play or sketch performance, create costumes and dress as you think the characters in your novel did

Web. Podcast, website, blog, interactive map (flash)

Creative Writing. Poetry collection, travel diary, or reading journal children’s book graphic novel/comic

Academic Writing. Speech, essay, print journalism, interview magazine article newspaper, travel guide, yearbook

Broadcast Journalism. Investigative interview or profile, news broadcast, movies, tv, radio or tv talk show, scene from a film or radio program

Other. Recreate a battle or scene, diaspora project, illustrated family tree puzzle, diagram research project

Project Proposal Due May 19

  1. Book Title
  2. Group (name group members) or Individual Project?
  3. Type of Project
  4. Project Title
  5. Project abstract (50‐100 word description of the project and how it relates to your lit circle book)
  6. If you have a group/partnership, who will do what? Describe the role each group member will play.

 

Practice-Based Instruction in English Teacher Education: Teaching Novice Teachers to Lead Class Discussions

Amanda Stearns-Pfeiffer, English Department, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan, stearnspfeiffer@oakland.edu

Abstract. This article describes a yearlong investigation of how explicit, focused instruction in facilitating classroom discussion, combined with approximations of (and peer/instructor feedback on) this practice, impact the way(s) preservice English teachers learn to discuss literature with secondary students.

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“Are My Songs Literature?” Lessons Learned from Teaching a Non-Traditional Text

Jim Carlson, Assistant Professor in the Department of Educational Studies, at the University of Wisconsin – La Crosse, jcarlson @ uwlax.edu

Emily Mootz, student of Secondary English Education, University of Wisconsin – La Crosse, mootz.emil @ uwlax.edu

Krystle Thomas, undergraduate Social Studies and Psychology teacher candidate, University of Wisconsin – La Crosse, thomas.krys @ uwlax.edu

Abstract. Carlson, Mootz, and Thomas provide an overview of their experiences as co-teachers during a summer pre-college program in which they taught a non-traditional text, Kendrick Lamar’s (2015) hip-hop album, To Pimp a Butterfly (TPAB), rather than a conventional literary text from the Western canon.

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Comfort Zone X: Establishing Safe Learning Environments for Open Discussion of Critical Issues

Aaliyah Baker, Department of Language and Literacy, Cardinal Stritch University, abaker@stritch.edu

Abstract. This article is intended for practicing educators charged with providing meaningful experiences in literature-based instruction for students of all ages. As an educator herself, Baker strives to support students in their quest to become critical, reflective thinkers and mindful consumers of information on past and contemporary issues. The question becomes: how can one encourage open discussion and debate while maintaining a safe environment for a variety of voices and perspectives?

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